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Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) 101

Updated: Jul 7, 2023


What are EMFs?


The abbreviation EMF comes from the words ElectroMagnetic Field. EMFs can also be described as electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Electromagnetic fields consist of electromagnetic waves that oscillate in certain frequencies. [64]


The electromagnetic spectrum covers everything from X-rays to visible light to microwaves and radio waves. When talked about EMFs in our environment and especially in our homes, it is commonly referred to the spectrum between 50 Hz to 60 GHz, leaving out for example x-rays, visible and non-visible light. [65]


The lower frequencies (visible light, infrared & near infrared light, microwaves) are categorized as non-ionizing radiation since they don’t have enough energy to ionize atoms & molecules or break chemical bonds. Higher frequencies (ultraviolet light, X-rays & gamma rays) are referred to as ionizing radiation since they have enough energy to ionize molecules or break chemical bonds. The higher the frequency, the higher the energy of the radiation. [65]


NOTE. The definitions and categorizations in this post are simplified. The idea is to describe the different EMFs and the spectrums as they are found in our houses and living environments. For this reason, they are not exactly the same as one might find described in the scientific literature. They are, nevertheless, scientifically solid.



Types of EMFs


EMFs can be divided to four different groups:

· radiofrequency radiation

· dirty electricity

· electric fields

· magnetic fields


Radiofrequency


Radiofrequency radiation, also referred to as microwaves, is radiation in the highest frequencies. They work roughly in the spectrum from 300 MHz to 60 GHz. Radiofrequency radiation has the least amount energy. [1] This is often considered as proof that radio waves cannot affect health but this has been shown to be false in numerous studies starting already from the 90s. [102] Radiofrequency radiation is emitted from radio- & TV -towers, mobile phone towers, microwave ovens and all kinds of wireless devices, like mobile phones, baby monitors, smart devices & Wi-Fi.


Dirty electricity


Dirty electricity, also called as high frequency voltage transients, is the most controversial of these four. It has not been studied very widely yet and thus it has not been considered as a serious issue. The studies that have been conducted so far, however, repeatedly show negative health effects of these electromagnetic fields. [102] Dirty electricity has also been noted by building biologists and other health professionals to cause many different negative health effects in people and animals. [133, 134, 135, 136]


Dirty electricity spectrum can be considered to be between 100 Hz to 100 KHz [2] though many different definitions can be found. Dirty electricity is emitted from wiring and electrical equipment. It is caused by certain types of lights, inverters, transformers, chargers and dimmer switches. Basically anything that alters the normal AC electricity in any way, can create dirty electricity. Transformers, for example, alter the voltage and can thus create dirty electricity into the electrical grid & wiring. [103]


Dirty electricity can easily be detected in your house with a simple AM radio. As AM radio waves are in the same frequency range as dirty electricity, AM radio can detect the dirty electricity in our houses. You can notice that when a turned-on radio gets closer to the wiring & electrical devices, the noise levels in the radio increase. This is because the radio picks up the dirty electricity that’s emitted from the wiring & devices. The louder the noise, the more dirty electricity is present.


Electric fields


Electric fields are usually in the same frequency as the electricity in your house, 50 – 60 Hz. This is why they are also called power frequencies and often referred to as ELF (extra low frequency) EMFs. All electric charges produce electric fields, so anything that has an electric charge will produce an electric field. Electric fields are thus emitted from electrical wiring, power lines and all kinds of electrical devices. There is always an electric field present when an appliance is plugged to the wall. Electric fields do not travel as long distances as radio waves so it’s fairly simple to keep distance to the sources. [64]


Magnetic fields


Magnetic fields also work in the same power frequency (ELF-EMFs) as electric fields, 50 – 60 Hz. Magnetic fields are created by moving electric charges. When an electric appliance is turned on, an electric charge flows through the wire and the appliance creating a magnetic (and an electric) field around them. So magnetic fields come off from the same places where electric fields are created: electrical wiring, power lines and all kinds of electrical devices. Magnetic fields are almost impossible to shield so the best way to protect yourself from them is to keep as much distance as possible. [64]



Health effects


The current paradigm around the health effects of EMFs have been that negative effects are mostly produced by ionizing radiation, ie. X-rays, cosmic rays, and non-ionizing radiation can only cause adverse effects if it heats up the tissue. It is, however, demonstrated in countless studies that non-ionizing radiation can indeed cause negative health effects even when the tissue doesn’t heat up. [102]


It is also worth noting that only 27% of industry-funded studies have found negative effects from EMFs whereas 68% of independent studies show adverse effects. [104] It is actually very easy to make a radiation study setting that will show no or very little harm from EMFs. This can then easily be sold to politicians and the public, who are not experts in the field. However, it has been noted that the better the quality of the study, the more likely it is to find adverse effects. [123]


Many scientists have also reported that they have experienced heavy pressure from the funders to get results that would show EMFs not having any adverse effects. Many have also lost all their funding after their research have shown EMFs having harmful effects. [108]


The adverse health effects of non-heating non-ionizing radiation is probably due to the effects of radiation activating voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and thus causing excess calcium intake to the cells, which in turn causes oxidative stress and inflammation, and wide variety of other adverse effects. [8, 20, 32, 108] There is also some research pointing out that EMF’s might actually cause direct damage to the DNA. [108, 112, 128]


Below is a list of adverse health effects related to different kind of EMFs.


Radiofrequency


- allergies [5]

- loss of appetite [116]

- blood-brain barrier permeability [4, 106, 107, 113, 114]

- brain tumors [5, 6, 9, 13, 14, 17, 19, 21, 22, 30, 45, 47, 111, 115, 118, 123, 124, 125, 127, 129]

- breast cancer [5]

- cardiovascular effects [5, 32, 116]

- changes in blood pressure [4]

- changes in neurotransmitters and brainwaves [4, 32, 41, 44, 52, 111, 120]

- childhood leukemia [5]

- cognitive effects, eg. memory, attention, learning [3, 5, 26, 35, 36 ,37, 38, 43, 48, 116]

- dizziness [116]

- electrohypersensitivity (EHS) [20, 21, 27, 108]

- epilepsy [31]

- fatigue [24, 49, 116]

- male fertility [7,15, 18, 19, 26, 32, 33, 34]

- female fertility [18, 26, 32]

- genotoxicity [5, 10, 16, 17, 19, 21, 26, 29, 32, 34, 111, 112, 128]

- headaches [24 ,38, 48, 49, 116]

- hormonal changes [34, 108]

- immune system [5, 17, 111]

- inflammation [5, 16, 17, 21, 24, 29, 32, 34, 111]

- Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) [27]

- release of mercury from amalgam fillings [12]

- miscarriage [5]

- nausea [116]

- neurodegenerative diseases [5, 26, 31, 39]

- neuropsychiatric effects, eg. depression [32, 34, 48, 116]

- pain [40]

- preterm birth [23]

- Sensitivity Related Illness (SRI) [27]

- sleep [25, 32, 35, 38, 42, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 113, 116, 117, 120, 121]

- heart tumors [17]

- other tumors [19]

- visual problems [116]

- effects on wildlife [11, 28]


Dirty electricity


- ADHD [72, 77]

- asthma [77]

- cancer [71, 81]

- diabetes [74, 77]

- EHS [73]

- inflammation [76]

- changes in neurotransmitters [75]

- MS [77, 79]

- obesity [78]

- stress [75]


Electric fields


- allergies [57]

- ALS [55]

- breast cancer [57, 61, 111, 130]

- brain tumors [55, 57, 111]

- other cancers [111]

- cardiovascular effects [57, 59, 67]

- cognitive effects, eg. memory, attention, learning [59, 111]

- fatigue [59]

- genotoxicity [57, 66, 112]

- headache [59]

- hormones [68]

- immune system [57, 111]

- inflammation [57, 111]

- childhood and adult leukemia [54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 111]

- miscarriage [55, 57]

- neurodegenerative diseases [57]

- neuropsychiatric effects, eg. depression [59]

- changes in nervous system function [111]

- skin problems [59]

- suicide [55]

- sleep [56, 60, 69, 70, 113]


Magnetic fields


- asthma [92, 99]

- ALS [88, 93]

- Alzheimer’s disease [132]

- cardiovascular effects [98]

- changes in brainwaves and function [97, 111]

- childhood and adult leukemia [62, 63, 82, 85, 86, 87, 111]

- cancer, tumors [83, 90, 111, 126, 130, 131, 132]

- male fertility [96]

- hormonal changes [100]

- genotoxicity [94, 95, 111, 112]

- immunity [99, 111]

- inflammation [8, 111]

- preterm birth, miscarriage [85, 91]

- sleep [50, 83, 84, 89, 101, 113]



Mitigation


The best way to protect yourself from EMFs is always distance. The radiation decreases in inverse—square law, meaning that when the distance doubles, the radiation decreases 4-fold. [105] Other ways to protect yourself from EMFs are different shielding products and materials. More on these below.


Radiofrequency radiation


Radiofrequency radiation can be found basically from every place and spot in the world. In that sense, protecting yourself 100% from this radiation is very difficult. However, radiofrequency radiation is the weakest in strength, meaning that shielding from it is fairly easy.


It is quite easy to keep the sources of radiofrequency radiation in our homes minimal. Choosing wired products over wireless can reduce the radiation significantly. You can for example plug your computer & tablet with an ethernet cable instead of using Wi-Fi, use cabled mouse, keyboard and other computer devices, choose headphones with a cable. Opting out from all wireless and smart devices can reduce the radiation in your house significantly.


If you have wireless devices in your home, keep them as far from the living and sleeping areas as possible and/or keep them shut down or in airplane mode when you’re not using them, especially at night. Try not to keep your phone close to your body and/or get a radiation protection phone case.


For homes that have a lot of radiation coming from outside of the house, from cellphone towers for example, there is a lot of shielding products you can use. There are shielding paints, curtains, clothes, bedsheets and mosquito nets designed to block the radiofrequency radiation. It is advised to have an EMF professional, like a building biologist, to measure the radiation before and after installing this kind of shielding products, as radiation can bounce from the shielding materials and thus in worst case scenario, increase the radiation in your living space.


Dirty electricity


Dirty electricity isn’t the easiest type of radiation to protect yourself from. You can try keep as much distance as possible to the electrical wiring and devices in your home. Unfortunately, this can be challenging in already built homes where electrical wiring is usually installed close to beds, sofas and other places where people spend most of their time.


In regular AC-powered houses all low-voltage and direct current (DC) electrical equipment, like computers, phones as well as many different chargers, all need a transformer or inverter, which cause dirty electricity. Having as few of these kinds of appliances as possible will help reducing the amount of dirty electricity in your house.


The trickiest part of dirty electricity is that it can enter your house also from outside. All kinds of dirty electricity -causing devices and appliances will feed the dirty electricity they create straight into the public electric grid, and in there it can travel long distances. This means that for example, LED lights in your neighbor’s house can cause dirty electricity levels in your house to increase. For this reason, the best way to protect yourself from dirty electricity, is to install dirty electricity filters. They are very simple devices that are installed either directly to the receptacles or in the main electric panel, and they clean the dirty electricity from your wiring.


Another but a bit more complicated option is to provide low-voltage DC current straight to your devices. You could have power banks & batteries that you charge at certain time when you’re not in the house and use them to power your low voltage & DC devices, like computers, phones and lighting. DC current can be created also for example with solar panels. Just keep the panels as far from your living spaces as possible.



How do you protect yourself from the harms of electromagnetic radiation? Was there something you would want more info about? Let us know in the comments!



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